To examine delayed PTSD symptomatology over time among trauma survivors in Pakistan

Volume 1 - Issue 1
Muhammad Tahir Khalily Seema Gul Rabia Mushtaq Syed Farhana Jahangir
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This study investigates the presence of delayed PTSD symptoms after a period of twenty months in individuals who had an exposure to a traumatic event and to distinguish them from individuals who had no direct exposure but were affected indirectly. A purposive sample of fifty one individuals comprising Group 1 (Female N=30) and Group 2 (Male N=21) examined in this study. Two standardised psychological tests known as Clinician- Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and PTSD Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C) were used for this purpose. Our results indicated a significant difference (P<.001) between Group 1 and Group 2 and distinguished Group 1 (Individuals with direct exposure to trauma) from Group 2 (Individuals with indirect exposure to trauma) on the basis of PTSD symptomatology. This suggests the presence of delayed PTSD symptoms in individuals who were exposed to a traumatic event than the individuals with no direct exposure to a traumatic event after a long period of a recovery phase. Our results were found consistent with the previous studies and add the findings of this study to the scientific literature in the context of developing delayed PTSD symptoms in response to a traumatic event.


  • Delayed PTSD symptoms
  • CAPS
  • PCL-C
  • Trauma
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