Volume 1 - Issue 1

January 2012

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To examine delayed PTSD symptomatology over time among trauma survivors in Pakistan

Muhammad Tahir Khalily Seema Gul Rabia Mushtaq Syed Farhana Jahangir
Pages: 1-11

This study investigates the presence of delayed PTSD symptoms after a period of twenty months in individuals who had an exposure to a traumatic event and to distinguish them from individuals who had no direct exposure but were affected indirectly. A purposive sample of fifty one individuals comprising Group 1 (Female N=30) and Group 2 (Male N=21) examined in this study. Two standardised psychological tests known as Clinician- Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and PTSD Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C) were used for this purpose. Our results indicated a significant difference (P<.001) between Group 1 and Group 2 and distinguished Group 1 (Individuals with direct exposure to trauma) from Group 2 (Individuals with indirect exposure to trauma) on the basis of PTSD symptomatology. This suggests the presence of delayed PTSD symptoms in individuals who were exposed to a traumatic event than the individuals with no direct exposure to a traumatic event after a long period of a recovery phase. Our results were found consistent with the previous studies and add the findings of this study to the scientific literature in the context of developing delayed PTSD symptoms in response to a traumatic event.

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The Reliability and Validity Study of Internalization of Parental Rules Scale into Turkish Culture

Ercan Kocayörük
Pages: 12-22

The purpose of present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Internalization of Parental Rules Scale (IPRS; Soenens & Vatkentkiste, 2009), with a sample of middle-adolescents with ages between 14 and 18 years. The confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the reliability and validity of a four-dimension model of adolescents’ different reasons to follow parental rules based on perspective of Self-Determination Theory. Results of the confirmatory factor analyses suggested the original factor structure of the IPRS does fit the data for adolescents’ ratings of mother and fathers on the measures of internalizing of parental rules. The findings also reveal that the acceptable level of internal consistency is obtained for the four-factor structure (22 items) and the Relative Internalization Index (RII). Test-retest reliability is moderately strong among the subscales and RII score of the IPRS, and the results consistently agreed with the theoretical framework with respect to divergent validity. It is concluded that the IPRS constitutes a useful tool for the assessment of adolescents’ different reasons to follow parental adolescents aged between 14 and 18 years.

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The Acquisition of Discourse Markers in Arabic First Language Acquisition: A Case Study of a Saudi ADHD Child

Mona Alahmadi Hashim Noor
Pages: 39-66

The present study investigated the acquisition of discourse markers as being part of complex structures by an Arab monolingual ADHD child, who is also a late talker. The selected child is the offspring of one of the researchers. The child had been observed since the age of five and four months to the age of seven (20 months); his conversations with his mother and family members were taperecorded, and phonetically transcribed for analysis. The study has three main concerns: first, to examine and analyze systematically the acquisition of discourse markers in Arabic in ADHD children; secondly, trace the type of deviance and the number of deviant structures uttered by the child. Thus, we can see how long it takes the child to overcome the gap and acquire these structures as part of his language inventory. Results indicated that the verbal production of the child significantly exhibits fewer discourse markers which result in loosely connected utterances and less organized structures, i.e. ADHD children are more likely than other children to produce ungrammatical structures and less cohesive utterances. Moreover, the order of the acquisition of some connectives is in line with the literature of typical language development, nonetheless, the child was found late in his acquisition of these discourse markers. In addition, the analysis of the redundant deviant constructions indicated that the child’s employed a number of systematic strategies (omission and/or substitution) in the formation of ungrammatical structures. It is hoped that the obtained results will contribute to the literature of first language acquisition as well as the comorbidity of ADHD and delayed language development in the affected children by providing insights into (i) how first language acquisition proceeds in an ADHD child, and (ii) how speech delay, the most common co-morbid disorder, affects normative language development of an ADHD child, by specifying and analyzing the type as well as the redundancy of deviant structures in his speech.

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Perceived Risk and Willingness to Vote for Marginal Parties in Turkish Electorate

Ertuğrul Gödelek
Pages: 67-76

This article focuses on the relationship between a voter’s willingness to vote for marginal parties and one’s willingness to accept qualitatively different forms of risk. In this study, willingness to vote for marginal parties is expressed in terms of electorate risk-taking and the main purpose of this study is to draw a relationship between willingness to vote for marginal parties and hypothesized risk-taking dimension of cognitive style. A total of three hundred subjects were run throughout the study. Main findings in this study are as follows: 1. for both genders, the general direction of the relationship between breadth of categorization and expressed willingness to vote for marginal parties is such that broad categorizers have a greater willingness to vote for marginal parties than narrow categorizers. 2. Relating willingness to vote for marginal parties to perceived differences between political parties showed distinctly different voting behavior patterns between males and females.

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Achievement Goal Orientations and Age

Abdullah Akın
Pages: 77-81

The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between achievement goal orientations and age. Participants were high school and 473 university students. The 2X2 Achievement Goal Orientations Scale and personal information sheet were used as measures. The relationships between achievement goal orientations and age were examined using ANOVA. As hypothesized learning-approach/avoidance goal orientations have increased while performance-approach/avoidance goal orientations have decreased with age. Results were discussed in the light of literature.

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